How To Light A Lantern Mantle – An incandescent gas mantle, gas mantle, or Welsbach mantle emits a bright white light heated by fire. The name refers to the original heat source of the gas lamps that lit the streets of Europe and North America at the end of the 19th century. The cloak refers to the way it is fastened over the fire as a cloak. Gas jackets have also been used in portable camping lamps, pressure lamps, and some oil lamps.
Gas mantles are usually sold as textile goods, which burn as a result of impregnation with metal nitrates, leaving behind a strong but brittle network of metal oxides, which are heated on first use; these metal oxides emit light from the heat of fire wherever they are used. Thorium dioxide is usually the main component; because it is radioactive, this has led to concerns about the safety of those involved in the production of the cloaks. However, normal use poses little health risk.
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A cloak is a roughly pear-shaped cloth bag made of silk, ramie-based rayon, or rayon. The fibers are impregnated with metal salts; When the mantle is first heated in a fire, the fibers burn within seconds and the metal salts turn into solid oxides, forming a brittle ceramic shell in the shape of the original fabric. The mantle glows brightly in the visible spectrum while emitting little infrared radiation. The rare earth oxides (cerium) and actinides (thorium) in the mantle have low emissivity in the infrared (compared to an ideal blackbody) but high emissivity in the visible spectrum. There is also evidence that emission is controlled by candoluminescce, i.e. light emission from combustion products before they reach thermal equilibrium.
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The combination of these properties creates a mantle that, when heated with a kerosene or liquefied petroleum gas flame, emits intense radiation that is mostly visible light with relatively little unwanted infrared energy, increasing the brightness of the efficiency.
The mantle aids the combustion process by keeping the flame small and has a higher fuel flow rate than a simple lamp. This concentration of combustion in the mantle enhances heat transfer from the flame to the mantle. The jacket shrinks after all the fabric is burned off and becomes very fragile after the first use.
In the case of cures, artificial light is produced using op flames. The spotlight was proposed in the 1820s, but the temperature required to produce visible light by blackbody radiation alone was too high to be practical for small lamps. In the late 19th century, several inventors tried to develop an effective alternative that heated the material to a lower temperature, but used the emission of discrete spectral lines to simulate white light.
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Many early attempts used platinum-iridium gauze impregnated with metal nitrate, but these materials were unsuccessful due to the high cost and unreliability of these materials. The first effective sheath was the Clamond basket in 1881, named after its inventor. This device was made with an expertly designed matrix of magnesium oxide that did not need to be supported by a platinum wire cage and was introduced at the Crystal Palace Exhibition in 1883.
The modern gas mantle is one of many invitations from Carl Auer von Welsbach, a chemist who studied rare earth elements in the 1880s and was a stud of Robert Buns. Ignaz Kreidl collaborated with him in his first experiments in the creation of the Welsbach cloak. His first process contained 60% magnesium oxide, 20% lanthanum oxide and 20% yttrium oxide, which he called “Actinophor” and patented in 1887. the cloaks produced a gray-toned glow and were not very successful. Carl Auer von Welsbach’s first company established a factory in Atzgersdorf in 1887, but went bankrupt in 1889. mix. 99% thorium dioxide and 1% cerium dioxide, which emitted a whiter light and formed a stronger coating. After this new cloak became commercially available in 1892, it quickly spread throughout Europe. The gas jacket remained an integral part of street lighting until the widespread introduction of electric lighting in the early 1900s.
To produce the cloak, cotton is woven or tied into a sleeping bag, impregnated with soluble chos metal nitrates and heated; the cotton burns and nitrates are converted to nitrites, which combine to form a solid network. As heating continues, the nitrites eventually decompose into a brittle network of solid oxides with very high melting points.
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Early mantles were sold in an unheated cotton mesh state, as the oxide structure was too fragile to be easily transported. The cape is made into a working mold where the cotton is burned on first use. Unused gowns cannot be stored for a long time, as the cotton rots quickly due to the corrosive effect of acidic metal nitrates. This problem was eventually solved by soaking the mantle in an ammonia solution to neutralize the excess acid.
Later, instead of ordinary cotton, cloaks were made from guncotton (nitrocellulose) or collodion, as very fine fibers could be made from this material, but before the first use, cellulose had to be made by dipping in ammonium sulphide, as guncotton is very flammable. and can be explosive. It was later discovered that the cotton cloak could be sufficiently strengthened by dipping it in a collodion solution, coating it with a thin layer, which would burn off the first time the cloak was used.
The mantles have a tie wire that secures them to the lamp socket. Until asbestos was banned due to its carcinogenic effects, asbestos wire was used; Modern sheaths use wire or ceramic fiber.
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Thorium is radioactive and produces radioactive radon-220 gas as one of its decay products. Also, when heated to incandescence, thorium vaporizes into the growing radium daughters, especially radium-224. Despite its very short half-life, radium rapidly repels its radium component (thorium-228), and each new heating of the filament mantle emits a fresh stream of radium-224 into the air. This by-product can be inhaled if the cloak is used indoors and is an alpha-emitting internal radiotoxicity problem. Secondary decay products of thorium include radium and actinium. For this reason, the safety of thorium jackets is a concern. The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency recommends jackets made with yttrium.
A 1981 study estimated that the dose from weekly use of a thorium cloak for a year would be 3-6 microsieverts (0.3-0.6 mrem), which is small than the normal annual dose of about 2.4 mSv (240 mrem ) relative to the background radiation dose, although this assumes that the thorium remains intact and not the air. The person who actually receives the cloak receives a dose of 2 mSv (200 mrem).
However, radioactivity is a major concern for people involved in locust farming, and soil contamination is a problem around some of the former factories.
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A major concern is that particles from thorium’s gas mantle “fall” over time and become airborne, where they can dissolve in food or drink. These particles can be inhaled and remain in the lungs or liver, causing long-term exposure beyond the risk of background radiation. Also of concern is the release of thorium-containing dust if the mantle breaks due to mechanical impact.
All these problems have led some countries to use alternatives, usually yttrium or sometimes zirconium, although these are often more aggressive or less effective. The safety concerns are the subject of a federal lawsuit against the Coleman Company (Wagner v. Coleman), which initially agreed to put warning labels on the jackets and then switched to using yttrium.
In June 2001, NUREG published a study on the systematic radiological evaluation of exemptions for source materials and by-products
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