(wow) Words Of Wonders Level 1270 Answers – Assessing Trends and Causes of Land Productivity Change in the Han River Basin, China: Supporting SDG Indicator 15.3.1
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(wow) Words Of Wonders Level 1270 Answers
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Received: September 9, 2021. / Revised: October 30, 2021 / Received: December 7, 2021 / Published: December 10, 2021
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The sudden transition to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic is a challenge for many students and teachers, as many universities suddenly switched to online learning without giving enough time to prepare and train teachers and students to use interactive learning technologies. Such challenges are even more evident for language teachers in developing and maintaining interaction among students, especially when writing courses that require active participation and interaction. Therefore, this study focused on what and how a writing instructor used technology to create an interactive writing environment for KSA students participating in five online writing courses, and how students perceived the interaction and identified key influencing factors. of their perceptions. . Data were collected from several sources: WhatsApp chats, Google Docs chats and comments, screen chats, students’ texts and their electronic (e-)survey responses, and follow-up interviews. The study found that by connecting Google Docs with Blackboard Collaborate Ultra, the instructor engages students in multidirectional and multimodal interaction as well as writing and revision. The WhatsApp group was also used for personal student-student and student-teacher communication, reflecting students’ activities to provide support and advice outside of class time online. Student perceptions of technology-mediated interactions (overall, student-student and student-teacher) in online writing courses were high, although these perceptions varied by several factors, including sociodemographic characteristics. The study concludes by presenting useful pedagogical and research findings.
Writing well in English is a challenge for many EFL learners, including EFL Arabic learners. Therefore, one of the common pedagogical approaches in teaching writing is to engage students in contemporary writing, as it is a useful way to encourage students to practice writing in English, exchange ideas and feedback, build their knowledge and understanding and cooperate with the author. . text. in its design. collaborative dialogue/interaction [1, 2]. Despite this emphasis, students do not engage in spontaneous collaborative interactions [1, 3, 4], especially in the language being studied . This suggests that students need support from writing teachers/instructors [1, 6, 7].
While the above challenges are often associated with students who enroll in in-person and/or blended writing courses, what about students who enroll in fully online writing courses? These challenges are even more pronounced for students enrolled in fully online language learning courses , including writing courses, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic [9, 10], when both students and teachers have had insufficient time to prepare for online transition. Saudi Arabia, the context of this study, was no exception, as all universities switched to distance learning during the COVID-19 epidemic . Indeed, maintaining interaction during such intensive online learning is important to reduce students’ feelings of physical and psychological distance and their alienation from the online learning environment . However, how to maintain interaction and communication with students during online language learning , especially how to make the writing process collaborative and dialogical, can be a challenge for teachers and writing educators .
Studies have also provided evidence for the role of learning technologies in facilitating computer-based interaction in collaborative writing tasks in blended writing courses , with many studies emphasizing synchronous tools such as text and voice chat and instant conferencing. and specific promotion. . – temporary interaction between students [11, 16, 17]. Google Docs is one of these interactive tools that facilitate student-teacher  and student-student  interaction.
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If available online, students can communicate synchronously using Google Docs text chat while writing and/or editing their written texts [15, 18]. Google Docs can be a powerful tool when combined with other technological tools and screen recording systems, such as Skype  or Blackboard Collaborate Ultra . However, technology may not be effective in facilitating interaction unless it is combined with the right pedagogy . In this regard, research on the increased use of collaborative/individual writing in writing courses has provided evidence for collaborative writing as a learning/pedagogical activity that promotes student interaction during writing [22, 23, 24]. At the same time, it encourages students to share ideas, exchange opinions and produce their own written texts [24, 25, 26]. As students engage in collaborative writing, they learn through conversations about the language used in the writing . Although most of these previous studies have contributed to our understanding of the process of peer interaction in collaborative writing, they have focused on peer-to-peer or student-to-student interactions in pairs and groups. During collaborative writing activities, what other patterns of interaction might emerge if the course instructor were the mentor and facilitator of such collaborative writing assignments? Research on teacher engagement shows conflicting views on collaborative writing; and some researchers support the teacher’s participation in the interaction in peer work, because it allows students to seek support not only from their peers through student-student interaction, but also from the teacher through teacher-student and student-teacher relationships [28. , 29], some other researchers argue that it may reduce student participation in collaborative writing , possibly due to a perceived imbalance in teacher-student interactions [28, 31]. This course leads to further exploration of interaction patterns in facilitated and facilitated collaborative writing tasks using a combination of different technologies. Furthermore, it is important for students to perceive such interactions in order to provide an enriched understanding of the subject from various aspects. Therefore, using mobile instant messaging via Google Docs and WhatsApp and Blackboard Collaborate Ultra in three online writing courses at the University of KSA, this study sought to answer the following research questions:
This study was informed by three important theoretical approaches to collaborative writing: an interactionist approach, a sociocultural theory, and a social constructivist approach. In the case of the interactionist approach, especially the output hypothesis, interactional changes resulting from students’ negotiation of meaning play a key role in influencing language learning . “The essence of negotiation is interactive feedback”  (p. 46). In other words, when students negotiate meanings, they exchange requests for clarification, interpretations, confirmation checks, and repetitions . These interactive exchanges help learners convert inputs into outputs during interactions .
According to sociocultural theory , learning is conceptualized as a social activity that takes place in the zone of proximal development (ZPD) or the zone of mediated interaction. Studies influenced by this theory prove the role of dyadic interaction in helping students to successfully complete educational tasks as a result of mediation or support (support or assistance to less competent students than educated or literate students) [7, 35] . This theory emphasizes the dialogic and dynamic nature of peer interaction . Additionally, studies have highlighted the need to engage students in collaborative work where they co-write their texts by interacting with peers . Language acquisition takes place more in the process of social interaction than in written works .
From a social constructivist perspective, recent studies have also explained that engaging students to work with peers is necessary to facilitate peer-to-peer or student-to-student interactions . It is also a new way of providing effective feedback  and enhancing the socio-relational or socio-affective aspects of dialogic feedback . In a review of dialogic feedback , it is argued that peer dialogue promotes students’ roles as feedback seekers and providers. In other words, equal