(wow) Words Of Wonders Level 1607 Answers

(wow) Words Of Wonders Level 1607 Answers – 1608 Excavation of Four Burials at the Jamestown Church Site. Archaeologists were able to identify the men by examining their bones.

Dan Davis watched on a video screen as an underwater robot discovered a sunken ship at the bottom of the Black Sea. He was surprised to see bones in the rubble.

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Davis, a marine archaeologist specializing in ancient Greek and Roman shipwrecks, was not used to encountering human remains. Ancient ships usually had an open deck, and when their ships sank, many doomed sailors swam; and even then, bones do not live in a marine environment. Of the 1,500 ancient shipwrecks, only a few have been found to contain human remains.

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Davis imagined the possibility. “We can actually do scientific tests, maybe DNA tests, to help learn about these people who have been historically invisible,” he said.

“Some of them said, ‘Oh, you should leave the bones alone.’ Don’t redo them,” Davis recalls. “I remember thinking, ‘Wow!’ Yes? These poor students are wrong.”

The expedition failed to find the bones, but Davis began to think more about the question and did research on how the ancient Greeks viewed the matter. “In Athens and other ancient cities, it was a crime to handle human remains,” he says.

It depends on? Various debates in Davis’ class continue throughout the United States and around the world. Reports of archaeologists discovering and examining human remains inevitably lead to accusations of “grave robbing.”

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“These people were buried with love and respect by the people who cared about them the most,” said one Facebook commenter in response to a National Geographic article about human remains unearthed in Jamestown. “What gives anyone the right to dig them up and display their bones?”

Objections often stem from religious beliefs and historical grievances, but anger also stems from views of obscenity—anxiety about disturbing one’s final resting place to suit vested interests.

However, “archaeologists” who analyze human remains often encounter the stereotypes of emotionally distant scientists who treat bones as inanimate remains no different from pebbles or stone slabs.

These researchers are acutely aware that they are dealing with a former living human being. They see themselves not only as scholars of the past, but also as speakers of the dead, giving voice to those whose stories could go down in history.

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Does the religious belief of a dead person matter or is that religious belief still there today?

There is also a more important issue: the debate over the repatriation and reburial of human remains now stored in museums or research laboratories.

Some archaeologists strongly oppose the return of bones to Earth. Archaeologist Duncan Sayer of the University of Central Lancashire writes: “The destruction of human remains prevents further research; it is the judicial equivalent of book burning, the deliberate destruction of knowledge.”

Native Americans blame such deep-rooted beliefs for the slow return of their ancestral remains, despite federal law requiring their return. Thousands of bones remain in the archive – in one case, the bones of a child were found in an oat jar.

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Archaeologists agree that the days when “the search for scientific knowledge” can be cited as the sole basis for studying human remains are over.

“We’ve reached a point in American society where we accept that we’re doing science for people,” says Indiana University archaeologist Larry Zimmerman, who has long advocated for the preservation and restoration of Native American remains. In terms of commitment to the scientific community.’

Bones are time tablets that preserve information not only of people’s lives, but also of the times in which people lived. They can reveal the types of workers employed. DNA analysis can help identify remains and reconstruct family trees or even human migration patterns. Spectroscopic observations can tell what people ate and, moreover, what kinds of animals and plants existed at that time.

Bonesalsolet detects diseases such as the Black Death, which killed 20 percent of the European population in the 14th century. For the past ten years, archaeologist Sharon DeWitte from the University of South Carolina has been visiting the Museum of London regularly to examine their collection of excavated bones. From the mass grave of plague victims buried under East Smithfield Road.

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Examining the bones of those who died of the Black Death centuries ago has provided important information to combat modern epidemics.

His research has implications for modern diseases. “A lot of people thought the Black Death was a random massacre,” DeWittes said. “It didn’t matter how healthy people were, whether they were rich or poor, male or female – none of that mattered.”

But the bones told a different story. DeWitte looked for “nonspecific stress indicators”—signs of disease and malnutrition that can be found in bones and teeth. For example, a large bone growth indicates a soft tissue infection in the tibia or tibia. spreads to the bones.

Lines on the teeth can also indicate childhood diseases. If the child is malnourished or suffers from an illness, enamel production stops for a while. But if the children live, it starts again.

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DeWitte concluded that people who had previously suffered from poor health were more likely to die of the Black Death than healthy people. Deaths were higher among the elderly than among the young.

DeWitte’s work suggests ways to focus efforts on future outbreaks. “We should expect some differences in risk based on biological and social factors,” he says.

DeWitte believes that this understanding is partly because archeology in the past is not like the sun. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, archeology was largely the domain of wealthy researchers and influential “proprietors”, employed by museums to acquire their collections.

Archeology was also tainted by racism when 19th century scholars sought out Native American remains to prove their theories about the inferiority of non-whites. Graves were looted and recently the dead were taken from the battlefield. It was not until the 1960s and 1970s that archaeologists developed comprehensive ethical guidelines.

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Today’s archaeologists, the DeWittesays, strive to preserve these values. And he says that his chosen profession is uniquely suited to reforming theoretical views of history.

“Written records are about rich people and men, especially if we’re talking about the Middle Ages,” he says. He’s looking at bone data.”

British archaeologist and bone biologist Simon Mays tells the story of the phone call he received when he heard rumors of excavations in Yorkshire:

The British public supports the excavation of historical remains. (“Major London Excavation Reveals Surprising Layers of History”) However, this opinion varies from country to country. In Israel in the 1990s, Orthodox Jews – who believe that the human body should not be defiled – against the excavation and examination of human remains, there should be no rebellion. Israeli law now requires that any Jewish remains found at an archaeological site be handed over to the Ministry of Religious Affairs for burial.

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Native Hawaiians believe in a skeletal connection between the spirit world and the physical world. But Southern Europeans, Mays says, rarely object to the exhumation of human remains because the bodies are usually buried long enough to decompose, while the bones are exhumed and placed in ossuary.

Ultimately, an important question in evaluating the ethics of recovering human remains, according to Indiana University’s Zimmerman, is “whether stakeholders other than those in the scientific community have a voice.”

Or, to put it another way, since the dead have no say in the matter, researchers have an obligation to consult those closest to the deceased.

The funeral of King Richard III in 2015. Archaeologists were able to exhume the remains of the late monarch, understanding that he would be reburied once they had completed their research.

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This principle is reflected in the laws adopted by the United States. Countries that regulate archaeological excavations. Although specifics vary, permission to excavate historical remains generally requires permission from descendants, culturally related groups, and other “stakeholders.” Those people also have their own words about the burial of the remains.

The UK has adopted similar guidelines for determining when bone can be restored. This policy was put to an unusual test in 2006 when the British Council of Druid Orders demanded the reburial of prehistoric bones in a Wiltshire museum.

The bones, which are between 4,000 and 5,700 years old, were unearthed in a Neolithic settlement on Windmill Hill, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Druids considered the bones to be the remains of their ancestors and argued that placing them in a museum was a violation of their faith.

The Druid priest said: “Humanity is the most important part of nature, and to isolate any part of it in a clean, healthy and static environment, in order to protect it, is to deny the sanctity of nature: to prevent its development. “

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To the surprise and shock of several British scientists, the authorities in charge of repatriation took the druids’ claims seriously and agreed to force the suspension of research that would require taking samples of bone damage until the case is resolved.

After four years of discussion, the request was rejected. The Druid groups “were no more genetically related than anyone else in England, so there was no special relationship between them,” says Mays.

The Church of England speaks more than the Druids. When human remains are removed from an area under the jurisdiction of the Church, religious and secular laws apply.

The Church takes the theological position that “there is very little in the Bible to show that Jesus was interested in the human body and its remains after physical death”, adding that Christian theologians past and present have argued that “there is no real word. the building of man in the resurrection”. the physical body.”

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The crosses mark the burial places of the leaders of the Jamestown colony 400 years ago. The Anglican Church says that “there is little in the Bible to suggest that Jesus was very interested in the human body and its remains after physical death”.

However, the Church also believes that the word “destroyed” in common language

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