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How To Make A Table Apa Style – Once you have completed descriptive statistical analyses, you need to present them to others. In this section, we focus on the presentation of descriptive statistical findings in written form, in the form of graphs and tables, following the American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines for written research reports. These principles can easily be adapted to other forms of presentation such as posters and slide shows.
If you have few findings to report, it is often more efficient to write them down. Here are some important APA style guidelines. First, statistical results are always presented as numbers, not words, and are usually rounded to two decimal places (for example, “2.00” instead of “two” or “2”). These can be presented in a narrative description of the results or in parentheses, just like references. here are some samples:
How To Make A Table Apa Style
The mean age of the participants was 22.43 years with a standard deviation of 2.34. Among participants with low self-esteem, those in a negative mood expressed stronger intentions to have unprotected sex (M = 4.05, SD = 2.32) than those in a positive mood (M = 2.15, SD = 2.27). The mean value of the treatment group was 23.40 (SD = 9.33), while the mean value of the control group was 20.87 (SD = 8.45). The test-retest correlation was 0.96. There is a moderate negative correlation between the alphabetical order of respondents’ last names and their response time (r = -.27).
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Are used instead. Note also that the use of the parallel construction is particularly important for expressing similar or comparable results in a similar manner. The third case is
The treatment group mean was 23.40 (SD = 9.33), while the control group mean was 20.87, with a standard deviation of 8.45.
If you have a lot of findings to report, you can often do this more clearly and efficiently with a graph. There are some general guidelines to follow when creating diagrams for an APA style research report. First, a graph should always add relevant information and should not repeat information already present in the text or table. (If a graph presents the information more clearly or effectively, then keep the graph and delete the text or table.) Second, graphs should be as simple as possible. For example
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The use of color is discouraged unless absolutely necessary (although color can still be an effective element in posters, slide shows, or textbooks). Third, graphs should be interpreted independently. The reader should understand the main result only from the graph and its title and should not look for clarification in the text.
As we have seen throughout this book, bar graphs are commonly used to present and compare the mean scores of two or more groups or conditions. The bar chart in Figure 12.12, “APA-style bar chart, with error bars representing standard errors, based on studies by Ollendick et al,” is the APA-style version of Figure 12.5, “Working chart showing mean ratings of phobias from children’s clinicians in the two treatment conditions.” Note that it meets all of the listed guidelines. The new item in Figure 12.12 “Example of an APA-style bar chart where error bars represent “standard errors based on Ollendick et al.’s research” are smaller vertical lines that they extend up and down from the top of each main bar. They are error bars and represent the variability within each group or condition. Although they sometimes increase by one standard error in each direction, they are more likely to increase by one standard error in each direction ( as in Figure 12.12 “Example of APA Style Bar Chart with Error Bars Representing Standard Errors Based on Research by Ollendick et al”. Standard the error is the group standard deviation divided by the square root of the group sample size. The standard error is used because, in general, a difference between groups greater than two standard errors is statistically significant, so you can “see” whether the difference is statistically significant from a bar chart with error bars.
Figure 12.12 Example of an APA-style bar chart with error bars representing standard errors, based on research by Ollendick et al.
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Line charts are used to represent correlations between quantitative variables when the independent variable has or is organized into a relatively small number of different levels. Each point on the line graph represents the mean score of the dependent variable for participants at one level of the independent variable. Figure 12.13, “An Example of an APA-Style Line Graph Based on Carlson and Conard’s Research,” is an APA-style version of Carlson and Conard’s results. Note that it includes error bars representing the standard error and follows all the instructions given.
In most cases, the information on a line chart can just as easily be represented on a bar chart. For example, in Figure 12.13, “An Example of an APA-Style Line Chart Based on Research by Carlson and Conard,” you can replace each point with a line extending to the same level and leave the error bars exactly where they are. This highlights the fundamental similarity between the two types of statistical associations. Both are the difference in the mean score of one variable between the levels of the other. However, the practice followed by most researchers is to use a bar chart when the variable is plotted
Axis (usually the independent variable) has a large number of levels. Each point on a scatterplot represents an individual rather than the average of a group of individuals, and no line connects the points. The graph in Figure 12.14, “Example of an APA-style scatterplot,” is an APA-style version of Figure 12.8, “Statistical Correlation Between Twice-Weekly Students’ Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Scores,” that illustrates some additional factors. points. The first time the variables are on
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The axes are conceptually similar and measured on the same scale – as here, where we are measuring the same variable on two different occasions – this can be emphasized by making the axes the same length. Second, if two or more individuals are at exactly the same point on the graph, one way to show this is to slightly shift the points on the graph.
Axis Other options are to display the number of individuals in parentheses next to the dot, or to make the dot larger or darker in proportion to the number of individuals. Finally, you can also add a line of best fit to the points on the scatterplot, called a regression line.
Similar to graphs, tables can be used to clearly and effectively present large amounts of information. The same general principles apply to tables as to graphs. They should add important information to the presentation of the results, they should be as simple and self-explanatory as possible. We are again focusing on APA style manuscript tables.
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The most common use of tables is to present multiple means and standard deviations, usually for complex research designs with multiple independent and dependent variables. For example, Figure 12.15, “Example of an APA-style table showing means and standard deviations,” shows the results of a hypothetical study similar to the MacDonald and Martineau (2002) study discussed in Chapter 5, “Psychological Measurement.” (The means in Figure 12.15, “Example of an APA-style table presenting means and standard deviations,” are the means reported by MacDonald and Martineau, and the standard errors are not.) Recall that these researchers categorized participants as low or high self-esteem, put them in a negative or positive mood and measured their intention to have unprotected sex. Although not mentioned in Chapter 5, “Psychological Measurement,” participants’ attitudes toward unprotected sex were also measured. Note that the table has horizontal lines that cover the entire table at the top and bottom and just below the column headings. In addition, each column has a header, including the leftmost column, and additional headers spanning two or more columns to help organize and present information more effectively. Finally, note that in APA style tables are numbered consecutively starting with 1 (Table 1, Table 2, etc.) and have a short but clear and descriptive title.
– between several variables. This is called the correlation matrix. Figure 12.16 “Example of an APA-style table (correlation matrix) based on research by McCabe and colleagues” is a correlation matrix based on research by David McCabe and colleagues (McCabe, Roediger, McDaniel, Balota, & Hambrick, 2010). They were interested in the relationships between working memory and many other variables. From the table we can see that, for example, the correlation between working memory and executive function was extremely strong at 0.96, the correlation between working memory and vocabulary was average at 0.27, and all measures except vocabulary decrease with age. . Note that only half of the table is filled because the other half has the same values. For example Pearsons
The value in the upper right corner (working memory and age) would be the same as the value in the lower left corner (age and
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