How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia – Childhood leukemia is leukemia that occurs in a child and is a form of childhood cancer. Childhood leukemia is the most common childhood cancer, accounting for 29% of cancers in children aged 0 to 14 in 2018.

There are several forms of childhood leukemia, the most common being acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), followed by acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

Survival rates vary depending on the type of leukemia, but can be as high as 90% in ALL.

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Leukemia is a hematological malignancy or cancer of the blood. It develops in the bone marrow, the soft inner part of bones where new blood cells are made. When a child has leukemia, the bone marrow produces white blood cells that do not mature properly. Normal healthy cells only reproduce if there is enough space for them. The body controls the production of cells by sending signals to stop production. When a child has leukemia, the cells do not respond to the signals that tell them when to stop and when to produce cells. The bone marrow fills up, leading to problems making other blood cells.

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

Leukemia is usually described as “acute”, which is fast-growing, or “chronic”, which is slow-growing. The vast majority of childhood leukemia is acute and chronic leukemia is more common in adults than in children. Acute leukemia usually develops and worsens rapidly (over periods of days to weeks). Chronic leukemias develop over a slower period (months) but are more difficult to treat than acute leukemias.

The most common form of childhood leukemia is acute lymphoblastic (or lymphoblastic) leukemia (ALL), which accounts for 75-80% of childhood leukemia diagnoses.

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

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ALL is a form of leukemia that affects lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that fights infection. What a patient has ALL, the bone marrow makes too many immature white blood cells and they don’t mature properly. These white blood cells also do not work well to fight infection. The white blood cells produce too much and crowd out the other blood cells in the bone marrow.

Another type of acute leukemia is acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML accounts for most of the remaining cases of childhood leukemia, about 20% of childhood leukemia.

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

AML is a blood cancer in which too many myeloblasts (immature white blood cells) are produced in the bone marrow. The bone marrow continues to produce abnormal cells that crowd out the other blood cells and do not work well to fight infection.

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Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a specific type of AML. In this leukemia, promyelocytes are produced and build up in the bone marrow. A specific chromosome translocation (a type of genetic change) is found in sweet potatoes with APL. Ges on chromosome 15 swaps places with ges on chromosome 17. This genetic change prevents the promyelocytes from maturing properly.

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a chronic leukemia that develops slowly, over months to years. CML is rare in children, but it does occur.

CML patients have too many immature white blood cells produced and the cells crowd out the other healthy blood cells. A chromosome translocation occurs in patients with CML. Part of chromosome 9 breaks off and attaches to chromosome 22, facilitating the exchange of genomic material between chromosomes 9 and 22. The rearrangement of the chromosomes changes the positions and functions of certain genes, causing uncontrolled cell growth.

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

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Juvilous myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a form of leukemia in which myelomonocytic cells are overproduced. It is sometimes considered a myeloproliferative neoplasm. It is rare and most common in children under four years of age. In JMML, the myelomonocytic cells produced by the bone marrow invade the spleen, lungs, and intestines.

Most of the initial leukemia symptoms are related to problems with bone marrow function. There are several symptoms that children can experience. The symptoms usually appear quickly in acute leukemia and slowly over time in chronic leukemia.

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

One hypothesis is that childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is caused by a two-step process, starting with a genetic mutation and exposure to infections.

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Although this theory is possible, there is currently insufficient evidence in the sweet potato to support or refute the relationship between infection and the development of ALL.

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

High coffee consumption during pregnancy (2-3 cups/day or more) is also associated with childhood leukemia.

Allergies have also been suggested to be linked to the development of childhood leukemia, but this is not supported by current evidence.

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

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Childhood leukemia is diagnosed in several ways. The diagnostic procedures confirm whether leukemia is present, the extent of the leukemia (how far it has spread), and the type of leukemia. The diagnostic procedures are similar for the different types of leukemias:

Treatment of childhood leukemia is based on a number of factors, including the type of leukemia, features of the leukemia, prognostic features (children with poorer prognostic features receive more aggressive therapy, see Prognosis section), response to therapy, and extent of disease. at diagnosis. Treatment is typically administered by a team of health professionals, including pediatric oncologists, social workers, pediatric nurses, and pediatricians.

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

While the exact treatment plan is determined by the type of leukemia and the factors listed above, there are five types of therapies that are commonly used to treat all childhood leukemias. Four of these are standard treatment and one is in clinical trials. The four specific types of treatment traditionally used are chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation, radiation therapy and targeted therapy.

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Chemotherapy is a treatment that uses chemicals to disrupt the ability of cancer cells to grow and reproduce. Chemotherapy can be used alone or in combination with other therapies. Chemotherapy can be given as a pill to take orally, an injection into the fat or muscle, through an IV directly into the bloodstream, or directly into the spine.

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

Stem cell transplantation is a process in which the blood-forming cells that are abnormal (such as leukemia cells) or destroyed by chemotherapy are replaced with healthy new blood-forming cells. A stem cell transplant can help the human body produce more healthy white blood cells, red blood cells or platelets. It also reduces the risk of life-threatening conditions such as anemia or bleeding. Stem cell transplants can be done by taking cells from the bone marrow, blood or umbilical cord blood. Stem cell transplants can use their own cells, called an autologous stem cell transplant, or they can use cells from another person, called an allogeneic stem cell transplant. The type used in childhood leukemia is typically allogeneic. The donors used must match the child receiving the transplant by a marker called HLA

Targeted therapy is the use of medication to specifically kill the cancer cells. The drug can leave healthy, normal cells alone while it targets the cancer.

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

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Immunotherapy is a form of therapy that uses the child’s own immune system to fight the cancer. This therapy is currently in clinical trials.

Immunotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation and targeted therapies can also be used in the treatment of ALL. This will depend on the extent of ALL, the characteristics of the ALL and whether it has come back (comes back after the first treatment).

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

AML in children is a more difficult cancer to treat than ALL in children. AML treatment in children usually consists of a higher dose of chemotherapy over a shorter period of time compared to ALL treatment. Because of this shorter and more intensive treatment, the side effects are also more serious. These children are therefore treated in treatment centers or hospitals where they will stay for a longer period of their treatment.

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Treatment for AML consists of 2 phases: Induction and Consolidation. There is no maintenance phase of therapy in AML, as it has not been shown to reduce the chance of the cancer returning.

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

The APL type AML is also treated with all trans retinoic acid or arsic trioxide therapy in addition to what is mentioned above.

CML is usually treated with targeted therapy and possibly a stem cell transplant if it comes back or does not initially respond to the targeted therapy.

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

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The 5-year survival rate for childhood leukemia is 83.6% in the US. This means that 83.6% of children diagnosed with leukemia live 5 years or more after their diagnosis. This has greatly improved from a 5-year survival rate of 36.5% in 1975. The improvement is largely attributed to advances in therapy, especially therapy for ALL.

The outlook or prognosis for an individual child is affected by the type of leukemia. In addition, there are certain characteristics of the sweet potatoes and cancers that help doctors predict the prognosis (and determine treatment). These are called prognostic factors. Common prognostic factors are more significant in ALL than in AML.

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

The 5-year survival rate for children and adolescents under the age of 15 diagnosed with ALL was 91.8% in the US between 2007 and 2013. The survival rate for children under the age of 5 with ALL was 94% during the same period time. period of time.

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The survival rate for children under the age of 15 with AML was 66.4% in the US between 2007 and 2013. This is

How Long Do People Live With Leukemia

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